Hydrocarbons are the main source of energy for our civilization. At the moment, there are no other sources of energy that can compete with them for accessibility, spread, efficiency and safety. Huge investments in renewable and alternative energy sources made in recent years had practically no effect on the world energy balance. The share of hydrocarbons is still about 57% (Figure 1). How many years will we be able to use hydrocarbon raw materials to cover our energy needs? To answer this question, it is first of all necessary to discuss the real mechanism of formation of oil and gas accumulations on our planet. This article is devoted to this discussion.
First a few facts. On January 12, 2010 on about. Haiti there was a strong earthquake with a magnitude of seven points. Literally a few days after the earthquake in the offshore area of the island were discovered large oil reserves.
Previously conducted searches for oil in this zone produced negative results.
In June 1948 exploration well No. 3 gave an oil recycling, which marked the discovery of the Romashkinskoye oil field. According to initial estimates, the recoverable reserves of the field were 710 million tons of oil. However, to date, more than 3 billion tons of oil have already been extracted here, and the deposit is still being developed. In this case, very interesting phenomena are observed. Usually, in the development of an oil field, the properties of residual oil deteriorate, its density and viscosity increase. However, on the Minnibayevskaya area Romashkinsky the opposite effect was observed. In a number of wells, periodic reductions in the density and viscosity of oil to the level of the initial ones were revealed. In other words, “new” oil appeared in the reservoir. In addition, hundreds of inversion wells were identified, in which the long-term drop in production rate was suddenly replaced by their growth, which clearly contradicts the “law” of falling oil production.
The development of an oil field in the Tersko-Sunzhensky region in Chechnya began in 1895, and by the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, due to the strong watering of wells, most of them were mothballed. A few years later, the re-opened wells began to produce anhydrous oil. By the beginning of the 1990s, the wells had been flooded and had not been exploited for more than 10 years. With the resumption of production, the production rates increased significantly, and a part of the wells began to produce anhydrous oil again.
Similar cases of the arrival of “new” oil were recorded in a number of deposits around the world. Where does “new” oil come from in old, often developed deposits?
In September 2009, British Petroleum (BP) announced the opening of the largest ever oilfield company (Tiber Oilfield) in the Gulf of Mexico. The well that opened the reservoir was drilled from the offshore drilling platform to a depth of 10 685 m with a water column of 1260 m. At this depth, there are no petroleum reservoirs, the thermobaric conditions are too high to maintain the oil composition for a long time. Where does the oil come from?
According to BP at the end of 2014, the proven reserves of the Near and Middle East countries accounted for about 48% of the world’s oil reserves and about 43% – for natural gas. In accordance with the generally recognized quantitative geochemical model, all the oil-producing breeds in the region can yield no more than 6% of confirmed reserves. Where is the source of the remaining 94% of oil and gas?
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